Designing health education program about HIV and spread out the information widely is urgently needed to reduce HIV transmission among women in Indonesia. Determinants of women knowledge level about HIV included demographics, place of residence (geographic area, i.e., urban, rural), socioeconomic, and access to information.
Soil science academics should prepare a gender-equal soil science workforce to the growing population. Thus, supporting the Indonesian soil scientists’ women and achieving a more gender balance target is vital for accelerating soil science education, enhancing research opportunities, and managing agriculture to support economic growth. Unmarried women had a lower HIV https://asian-date.net/eastern-asia/indonesian-women related knowledge level compared to married counterparts.
I wouldn’t mind if my wife had a job, as long as she doesn’t forget her main responsibility for childcare.” Hendar, 18-year-old male high school student in Sidoarjo, East Java, summed up the position of many young men. Even very young girls have already seen that one day they will need to work around childcare duties, and most of them have anticipated this in their future plans. Boys, even those whose mothers have professional careers, expect that their future wives will only work for a few years before a baby comes along. After that, a part-time job or managing a small business from home are all most women can expect – only contributing a side income, no more. “On Instagram, I saw many women who have become soldiers and police officers. I have to be brave.” Ani, an 18-year-old female high school student in Yogyakarta.
The Defendant broke into the victim’s house and forced the victim to have sexual intercourse with the Defendant. The charge is regulated and punishable by Article 285 of the Indonesian Penal Code dated 19 May 1999. The court found the Defendant guilty and sentenced the Defendant to imprisonment for six years and six months. Western influence during humanitarian relief and disaster recovery, too, shaped how women were seen as victims not change-makers. That’s probably not going to change for a long time, but within this social structure, I hope that rights are afforded to minority groups within a socially-accepted framework. But there is a lot of tension between the president and his vice-president, Ma’ruf Amin, who is the leader of the Islamic Council and is responsible for a number of the groups advocating against this legislation. The second bill is about the protection of domestic workers because there are an extraordinary number of domestic workers, who are often women, that are unrecognized in the labour market.
- Forty years of violence against women in Papua province was explored in a report published in 2011 by activists Fien Jarangga and Galuh Wandita.
- Many conservative Muslim groups advocated the introduction of mandatory hijab rules in Indonesia, starting from conservative provinces like West Java, West Sumatra, and Aceh, using the regional autonomy drive in, post-Suharto Indonesia, to win political support for the measures.
- Article 297 prohibits trafficking in woman and boys, which carries a maximum sentence of six years imprisonment.
- He continued to pressure me to use a jilbab photo, writing via WhatsApp, but I declined.
- Since 2017, when KUPI issued fatwas on sexual violence, child marriage, and environmental degradation, the Indonesian government has legislated changes relating to two of the fatwas issued.
Vulnerable groups in general, women in particular, should have the same access to health care services and the self-determination to participate in their health care decision making. Accurate knowledge about HIV prevention reduces one’s risk for HIV exposure and subsequent infection.
The High Court upheld the lower court’s decision but amended the defendant’s sentence to seven years imprisonment. The Supreme Court upheld the decision of the High Court and did not rule on the sentencing since it was a “judex facti matter ”. This law sets the legal age of marriage without parental consent at 21 years of age.
Domestic Case Law
However, we are still waiting for some of his promises to come to light and to have an impact on the legislative council and in provincial administrations around the country where there are currently very low levels of women. Child marriage is high in Indonesia in part due to rooted gender norms, low levels of education and discriminating legislation, such as the marriage law, which states that, although it is legal to marry at 21, girls can marry at 16 and boys can marry at 19 with parental consent. But this can be even lower meaning parents could get their daughters married at as young as 13. So the law is fundamentally unfair between girls and boys and the women’s movement in Indonesia has been fighting extremely hard to reform legislation that discriminates against women and girls. In February 2019, at SMPN8 state high school in Yogyakarta, a mother reported the school to the National Ombudsman Office in Jakarta because the school principal, Islam religion teachers, and other students had routinely bullied her daughter to wear a jilbab.
Indonesia women’s national football team
In Minangkabau matrilineal culture, the payment of the “groom price”, is given to the groom’s parents, as the husband is entering his newly wed wife’s household, and is also based on the education and career of the groom. The custom is called bajapuik or uang japuik, although historically a widespread practice in Minangkabau land, today only people of Pariaman that continue to practice this custom. The more commonly prevailing national culture is the marriage gold or mahar which refer to a gift provided by the groom to be given to the bride.
The penal code only criminalizes acts of rape outside marriage unless the wife is underage and incurs injuries as a result. Articles 285 prohibits forcing or threatening force a woman to have sexual intercourse outside of marriage and punishes violators with a maximum penalty of 12 years. Article 286 punishes sexual intercourse with an unconscious or helpless woman with a maximum of nine years imprisonment. If there is a complaint, Article 287 imposes a maximum sentence of nine years imprisonment for “carnal knowledge” of a girl outside of marriage when the man knows or reasonably should presume that she is less than 15 years of age. Prosecutions are triggered automatically when the girl is less than 12 years of age. Article 288 punishes husbands that have “carnal knowledge” of their wives who “are not yet marriageable” if it results in injury , serious injury , or death .
Indonesian women could be making considerable shifts to national employment – women currently hold 33% of non-agricultural employment as they also work in the prestigious and traditionally male-dominated field such as architecture, medicine, and engineering. Indonesian women have pursued various lines of work and some have excelled in their careers. These include economists such as Sri Mulyani Indrawati and Mari Elka Pangestu, Olympic gold medalist such as Susi Susanti and Liliyana Natsir, to activists such as Butet Manurung and Yenny Wahid. During the administration of President Joko Widodo, Indonesia had 26% female representation among state ministers, the highest among the 10 most populous countries. Indonesia has increasingly put women in senior roles in the government, business and finance. They include Finance Minister Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Foreign Minister Retno Marsudi, Maritime and Fisheries Minister Susi Pudjiastuti, and Bank Indonesia’s deputy governor, Rosmaya Hadi. In Indonesian society, women performed vital roles both within and outside the family.
This kind of carriage was previously only able to be found on air-conditioned EMUs (which only provides women-only carriages on each end of the train), but a number of recently repaired non-air conditioned EMUs have also been equipped with the women-only carriage stickers. The Minangkabau people are known as one of the few traditional societies that apply matriarchal and matrilineal culture, where property and family names are inherited from mother to daughter, and husbands are considered as “guests” in their wives’ household.